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ALLANA MANAGEMENT JOURNAL OF RESEARCH, PUNE - Volume 10, Issue 1, January 2020 - June 2020

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The Impact of Industry 4.0 on Healthcare 4.0

Author: SamayaPillai, Dr.ManikKadam, Dr. H. Acharya

Category: Information Technology Management


We all are in the middle of a very historic make-over. It concerns the manufacturing or industrial
domain. “Industry 4.0”which has captured every-ones imagination is all about automation.Digitization in healthcare is progressing steadily. While currently processes are being optimized and processes are being facilitated, the breakthrough of digital medicine is still forthcoming. Digital medicine includes applications that focus on the patient and give them the promise of better care. Many digital health applications are raising attention in traditional healthcare, as they are increasingly showing evidence.

The Industry 4.0 Standard (I4S) employs technologies for automation and data exchange through cloud computing, Big Data (BD), Internetof Things (IoT), forms of wireless Internet, 5G technologies, cryptography, the use of semantic database (DB) design, Augmented Reality (AR) and Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR). Its healthcare extension is the so-called Health 4.0.This study informsabout Health 4.0 and its potential to extend, virtualize and enable new healthcare-related processes (e.g., home care, finitude medicine, and personalized/remotely triggered pharmaceutical

treatments) and transform them into services. In the future, these services will be able to virtualize numerous degrees of care, interface gadgets, and move to Personalized Medicine (PM).We can say that the health 4.0 constitutes computers, communications, storage, interfaces, sensors, and bio-actuators. Healthcare4.0 can suggest monitoring patients before, after and during any medical treatments.The upcoming technology of IOT is becoming core inpatient-monitoring and many other processes of the healthcare. The Iot devices can be used to set alerts and mobilise faster decision making it efficient patient caring system. As of now, the National Health Service tends to the utilization of specialized devices to patients and clinical groups to heighten the exchange of medicines from the emergency clinic to the home, without disturbance in outpatient administrations. Healthcare 4.0 can have tools and technology allowing data embedding and BD analysis. The co-existence of technology with human intervention can lead to enhanced healthcare.

Objective of the Research Paper:The objective of the research paper was mapping of the concept of industry 4.0 to healthcare. The thought was to conduct an extensive literature review, identify the relevant gaps post the literature review. And lay a path for further research.

Full Text:


Industry 4.0 is a current term used to allude to the robotization and formative procedure in the producing industry. It likewise means the fourth mechanical upheaval. The term Industry 4.0 was first openly presented in 2011 as "Industry 4.0" by a gathering of delegates from various fields. Fields like business, governmental issues, and the scholarly world. This was done as a beginning up and helps the German seriousness in the assembling business.

In 2003, they created and distributed their first arrangement of suggestions.


Health 4.0:Healthcare 4.0 is a term that has emerged in the recent time. It is derived from the term Industry 4.0. The impact of digitization on healthcare is more visible in the current era. Healthcare industry touts systems like x?rays, imaging technology, tomography, ultrasound scans and EHR (electric medical records). The objective is delivery of effective and efficient health care services.

Internet of Things (IoT) in healthcare:benefits, use cases and evolutions:

The usage of the IoT in healthcare has increased in the current times. The use cases range from the wearable devices to monitor the patient-health remotely and in-house, the regular tasks like data processing, logistics etc.

The major objective of IOT usage is patient-treatment and improvisation of healthcare industry. The 2 areas of classification is – people and devices. The devices can further be classified as medical and non-medical.There is a dream of IOT being utilized in explicit applications, for example, keen pills, brilliant home consideration, individual human services, mechanical autonomy and Real-Time Health Systems (RTHS).

Healthcare 4.0

Today healthcare is one of the most crucial verticals. The major goal of healthcare is to cure the health issues of people. This industry has to deal always with scarcity in resources. The technological advancements do not give a relief and the hospitals have to constantly keep abreast of the changes. It impacts the services, operations and overall functioning. And plus, system processes in hospitals are too complex and sometimes lengthy. And, since it records of people’s medical history which is the major data, any glitch is non-permissible.

The job of healthcare-IT professionals is to simplify and hasten the lengthy system processes. This is generally achieved with the application of the latest technologies. These can assist the healthcare-IT professionals to builda single platform from which all the structured data can be retrieved for timely decisions thus indirectly leading to efficient and personalised of the patients. Making the required data available on a single platform can help the challenges that the healthcare industry is experiencingviz:

  • Standardizing of the processes
  • Data collection across all functionalities or operations.
  • data integrity in ht collected data
  • Lack of link between the advanced machines and the existing processes
  • Privacy and security issues

Automation can improve operational efficiency for the healthcare industry. This can be done by providing fast and accurate data for better decision making. It also allows better insights in relevant issues.And bypass the unwanted data. Enhancing the personal care level of treatment of patients. And, allowing the usage of smart analytics for overall- efficiency and performance. Other than improving the accessibility of healthcare professionals, automation also has some advantages on other frontslike the processes as well. Some of the processes can be a) The Admission process of patients. b)The emergency room processing c)patient transfer or mobility d) The documentation process e) The logistics and inventory

Literature Review:

The capacity utilization of data frameworks age (IST) as a serious weapon has been drilled by numerous individuals for a long time. The significant components for the vital utilization of IS by method of investigating the multifaceted job of IS inside the social insurance setting is endeavored in the article talked about. Three suggestions are developed as : "(1) re-breaking down a choice of effective IS bundles each inside and open air medicinal services organizations, (2) re-production utilization of the blending thought from the writing, and (3) looking at region encounters inside the human services venture.[1]The article focusses on the importance and impact of Industry 4.0.The result of the Internet-connected applied sciences in the initiation of value delivered for the organizations and society. The article is conceptual. With the growthof Internet, the Internet of things that is core to the new industrial revolution has steered to “Industry 4.0.” The article discusses theory, and practices of Industry 4.0.[2] In recent times, sensors are being tauted as an important function in nearly all types of applications. Specific to healthcare, the wearabledevices are viewed as crucial in generating statistical health data.This huge collection of data is also termed as Big Data.
The part proposes a comfortable modern net of elements (IoT) structure to store and method adaptable sensor records (huge records) for wellness care bundles. The information can be of respiratory subtleties, coronary pulse, circulatory strain, outline temperature and glucose.The sensory device can also alert the medics of any change or danger.[3] Industry 4.0 which exploits cyber-physical systems and represents digital transformation of manufacturing, is deeply affecting healthcare as well as other conventional manufacturing quarter. The paper discusses the new modes of manufacturing in health to cater to the growing need of agile, flexi and comparative rates. “The proposed architecture consists of 3 layers: notion, deployment and execution. The paper discusses demand-based drug packaging production.[4]. The Internet of thing uses the internet to communicate across the world-over- gadgets. Here graph of healthcare 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0.The paper discusses the impact of fog, cloud and IOT to minimize the patient-visits to online-visits. A 3 layered architecture is proposed for the patients.[5]. Edge computing paradigm is an upcoming technology for cloud-based IOT applications. This can be a balancing technology for the IOT by reducing the loadon IOT and enhancing the applications.The paper proposes BodyEdge, a novel structure utilizing the wearable gadgets for human-driven applications. with regards to the rising human services industry.. A real implementation has been tested in this context. Wherein BodyEdgewas found to be a valid and inexpensive solution for healthcare software.[6] “In current years, there is an increase in the use of Healthcare 4.0-based diagnostics systems throughout the world. In healthcare 4.0, the patient’s information is saved in electronic health record (EHR) repository which can be located both at a centralized or allotted area. It can to help the healthcare professionals to entry to the patient’s healthcare statistics from anywhere and at any time. Security and privacy are principal concerns while having access to it from any location. The paper, advocates a biometric-based authentication scheme to ensure secure right of entry to patients EHR from any location. Here protection threats and challenges are discussed.A proposed biometric-based scheme validated the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool is discussed.[7]The proposed mechanism is evaluated through a scan the usage of a pattern of 18 present heterogeneous scientific information sources. Based on the captured results, we were able to become aware of a statistics supply of unknown type, recognizing that it was once a physique weight scale. Afterwards, we were capable to find out that the API technique that was once responsible for gathering information out of this data source was once the get Measurements() method, whilst combining each the physique weight scale's great and its derived facts quality, we may want to determine that this records source was regarded as qualitative enough.By taking full benefit of shooting the nice of a information supply thru measuring and correlating each the statistics source's fantastic itself and the fantastic of its derived data, the proposed mechanism gives efficient results, being in a position to make certain end-to-end both data sources and information quality.[8].” The emerging concept of industry 4.0 and ists importance is showing an impact on the economy. The article analyses the healthcare supply chain. The authors collected huge data. The results discussed the impact of natural resources. The usage of internet was discussed. A roundabout economy progress calculated system was proposed. The examination recommended that the idea of industry 4.0 and corporate obligation can improve the social insurance gracefully chains.[9]Western made prosperity and care procedure is moving from a male driven clinical model to a co-directed and consolidated technique. The fourth mechanical insurrection for instance Industry 4.0 is changing gathering as per the mechanized customer change. The paper looks at a progressively individual centered usage of Industry 4.0 capacities for restorative administrations. It presents 'Care 4.0', an incipient perspective that could change the way where people make modernized prosperity and care offices, concentrating on trusted, consolidated frameworks of affiliations, people and advancements.[9]. This article presents the dataset of the human services structures markers of 120 countries all through 2010-2017, which is identified with the exploration article "Cross-productivity appraisal within the sight of bendy measures with an application to social insurance frameworks".The information is from World Bank. Contingent upon their situation in the general execution of the medicinal services frameworks, the side effects are classified into enter (I), yield (O) and bendy measure (FM). The dataset can be utilized to compute proficiency just as cross-effectiveness examination of the social insurance frameworks utilizing procedures, for example, insights envelopment investigation (DEA) within the sight of adaptable measure.[10].The advancement of insightful and measurements pushed developments has pushed and cleared a path for recorded solution for human-driven for example Social insurance 4.0. The upward push of net of things, IOT frameworks, and wi-fi systems has talented the wellness care condition with a producer new computerized change upheld by method of capability of cutting edge work area contemplating and man-made reasoning calculations. In this, social insurance related developments have risen as a riding power for granting persistent driven customized human services contributions. Advice structures are computerized structures that derive the choices on the idea of a few legitimate enter parameters and indispensable health records amassed thru the current wearable device technology, implantable technology, and numerous sensors. In this manner, to capture the cutting edge demeanors in the human services climate, this paper bears a total review on medicinal services proposal developments and the related ideal models. This study starts from the memorable human services innovation and circles closer to the Healthcare 4 of every a staged way. The guide from Healthcare 1.0 to Healthcare 4 is dissected to concentrate on amazingly great age verticals helping the advanced change. A profound examination of wellness care recommender frameworks and its sorts is in like manner provided. Inevitably, the open issues and provokes identified with the adaption and execution of human-driven Healthcare 4 condition are referenced. That is outfitted to discover the conceivable query questions and holes all together that the comparing arrangements may furthermore be better inside the shut than future. [12].The intention of this study changed into to represent preoperative splendid-utilizers and find out their impact on the surgical treatments. Summary of the article and history information: “developing healthcare prices are getting an increasing number of burdensome for Medicare. Exceptional-utilizers have been an increasing variety of recognized and studied as this subset of sufferers consume a disproportionate amount of healthcare choices in contrast with the ordinary public of the populace.”Strategies: victims old sixty five or more seasoned who experienced any of the accompanying in vogue non-compulsory medical procedures like stomach, heart, and so on have been analyzed utilizing a the clinic records. Medicare inpatient and outpatient costs the prior year careful activity, around the hour of careful treatment, and the a year after careful activity were considered for the examination. [13]. The article conducted research on patients suffering from paediatrics and kidney problems. The study probable use or misuse of drugs. The information came principally from a wellness protection database. The outcomes worry the requirement for the Regulator to upgrade danger organization data crusade just as deal with the data on products.[14].Although preventable, human services related diseases (HAIs) are normally seen in post-intense consideration settings for in danger more established grown-ups and are a principle motivation behind center readmissions. Be that as it may, regardless of whether HAIs bringing about avoidable readmissions for previous HAIs (the equivalent HAI as at the list affirmation) are more noteworthy basic for patients released to post-intense consideration as unfriendly to residential is obscure. We inspected the opportunity of previous HAI readmissions in agreement to influenced individual release mien and comorbidity level. Structure We utilized 2013-2014 nation wide clinical establishment release records to gauge the chance of readmissions for previous HAIs as indicated by patients' release manner and whether the probability fluctuates as indicated by tolerant comorbidity level, all through four continuous kinds of HAIs (excluding respiratory diseases). [15]Delphi study revealed that 5G has amazing conceivable for the future facts transfer in the healthcare domain, and an make bigger of lookup activities for 5G functions in hospitals is needed. Clinical comparison proved technical feasibility and accuracy of the 5G tune & hint prototype solution. For the telepresence use case, the video movement information fee various between 900KB-1MB/s (7.2-8Mb/s). The facts rate of the robotic control command various between 2.4-7.2KB/s (19.2-57.6Kb/s). Delay time (latency) ranged between 2-60ms depending on the transmitted information packet length. Seventy-five percentage of facts packets have been processed after 30ms.[16]Specialists arrived at agreement in 57 of 92 rankings (62%). Considering the connection between patterns, they foreseen a more prominent broaden for casual, home, and predominant specialist care, anyway no extra impact of communication for expert and intense consideration. Blends that covered improvements fundamental to less guide had been anticipated to prompt a more enhance in use.[17].The private restorative administrations zone is searching for to improve their perspective on business try approaches to manage be capable to improve their presentation. The point of view of this paper is to appreciate the future needs of the individual human administrations quarter relationship to the extent huge business capacity (BI) and business venture investigation (BA) to make certain expense creation. Structure/system/approach The four development phases of scholarly capital advanced by method of administrative information driven methodology are utilized as a system to call attention to the eventual fate of BI or BA in the private medicinal services area. The exploration comprises of non-general social insurance associations, BI suppliers and organization specialists in Finland.[18]Telesurgery in the 5G innovation has gigantic useful to convey human services careful administrations to faraway areas the utilization of rapid information move with a remote verbal trade station. It offers advantages to society taking into account its duplicated exactness and precision to analyze patients even from faraway areas. Be that as it may, the current typical telesurgery gadget has unreasonable correspondence inactivity and overhead, which restricts its materialness in a broad fluctuate of future applications [19]Healthcare can be looked to as Social insurance four is being hailed as the current day modern upset in the human services space, managing billions of heterogeneous IoT realities sources that are connected over the Internet and objective at providing constant wellbeing related records for occupants and patients. It is of preeminent significance to use a mechanized method to select the magnificent levels of these insights sources, so as to accomplish trustworthy wellness information.[20]The private human administrations zone is searching for to improve their impression of business try approaches to manage have the option to improve their presentation. The basis of this paper is To choose the results of human administrations related pollutions on size of PICU continue to be and mortality. Plan: Retrospective, single-center, observational assessment. Setting: PICU of a tertiary kid's clinical center. Patients: Consecutive casualties who stayed more conspicuous than forty eight hours in the PICU between January 2013 and December 2017. Intercessions: None. Estimations and Main Results: Data have been brilliantly gathered from sensible records. We saw occasions of typical social protection related pollutions, which fuse dissemination framework sickness, pneumonia, and urinary plot tainting, depicted by the 2008 implications of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Healthcare Safety Network. We reviewed the consequences of each restorative administrations related contamination on size of PICU remain and PICU mortality the usage of multivariable examination.[21].Healthcare 4.0 is an idea that has developed nowadays and gotten from Industry 4.0. Today, the medicinal services quarter is extra advanced than in past decades; for instance, spreading from x-beams and attractive reverberation imaging to figured tomography and ultrasound outputs to electric fueled clinical records. With the colossal range of advanced innovations supporting Healthcare 4 to flexibly more prominent quite productive wellness care administrations, in this article, we utilize the information pyramid technique to propensities a deliberate survey of cutting edge computerized outskirts in Healthcare 4.0 [22].The private human administrations zone is searching for to improve their impression of business attempt approaches to manage have the option to improve their presentation. The reason of this paper is To choose the results of human administrations related pollutions on size of PICU continue to be and mortality. Plan: Retrospective, single-center, observational assessment. Setting: PICU of a tertiary kid's clinical center. Patients: Consecutive casualties who stayed more noticeable than forty eight hours in the PICU between January 2013 and This paper targets examining the patterns, challenges and hypothetical holes in the usage of Healthcare four (H4.0) in view of on a checking appraisal of the writing. For that, we looked through diary articles in 4 comprehensively perceived databases and screened the recovered articles to harvest a distributions' portfolio. Our discoveries bring up that, notwithstanding the subject being so currrent, query in H4.0 has been directed in an interdisciplinary path with a fluctuated set of uses and functionalities. As far as its execution, H4.0 has been more noteworthy regularly situated in emergency clinics' measurements streams, for the most part the ones identified with human services medicines. [23]Healthcare or the Social insurance structures manage different difficulties in discharging insights from realities storehouses, finding it about impractical to be executed, kept up and overhauled, with troubles running in the specialized, security and human interaction fields. Presently, the developing accessibility of wellbeing records is upsetting information driven methodologies, carrying the conceivable outcomes to computerize medicinal services related errands, giving better issue location, increasingly precise forecast, quicker clinical exploration increment and higher fit as a fiddle for persistent administration.[24]The Health zone is picking up energy inside the Industry 4.0. National Health Systems are firmly associated with exceptional complex frameworks, and a wide arrangement of gadgets. NHSs are preparing and dealing with patients' information, and they are changing tricky records move stand-out nations. This paper considers criminal factors, for example, GDPR and it expands the Healthcare Industry structure reference model, with a lot of hardware managing assent the board and records concealing gear A case find out about delineates the utilization of the reference building model.[25]Present day social insurance structures are described as being extraordinarily confused and exorbitant. Be that as it may, this can be diminished through improved wellbeing record the board, use of protection organizations. This article utilizes the idea of square chain innovation. Headways in the square chain innovation have guided exchanges including clinical records, protection charging, and brilliant agreements, empowering changeless get passage to and assurance of information, as appropriately as giving a dispensed database of exchanges. [26]Web of-Things (IoT) has made pervasive figuring a reality by means of expanding Internet availability in a scope of purposes conveyed over the globe. IoT join billions of items all in all for high pace data switch exceptionally in 5G-empowered modern condition all through data assortment and handling. The greater part of the difficulties, for example, get admission to oversee instrument, time to bring the data from remarkable contraptions and conventions utilized may likewise never again be applicable in for future purposes as these conventions are fundamentally founded on a unified engineering.[27]"The paper proposes an Access Control Policy Algorithm." It can be utilized for improving the avai"The paper proposes an Access Control Policy Algorithm." It can be used for improving the accessibility of records. It uses square chain. Execution estimations in square chain frameworks, for instance, inactivity, throughput, Round Trip Time (RTT). have additionally been progressed for accomplishing progressively proper results. Diverged from common EHR structures, which use client specialist plan, the proposed machine uses square chain for overhauling profitability and security.lability of records. It utilizes the idea of square chain. Execution measurements in square chain systems, for example, inertness, throughput, Round Trip Time (RTT). have also been advanced for achieving increasingly appropriate outcomes. Contrasted with ordinary EHR frameworks, which use customer worker design, the proposed machine utilizes square chain for upgrading productivity and security.[28] Here the timeline of automation is discussed. Right from the first industrial revolution –i.e. mechanization via water and steam power to the mass manufacturing. In the second revolution, there was usage of assembly strains. The 4ht industrial revolution will take what used to be started out in the 0.33 with the adoption of computers and automation. The statistics can bring more insights. Mapping the Industrial Revolution to healthcare 1.0, shows the initial usage of medication. In healthcare 2.0, big manufacturing thinking was the key point.3.0 is the start of automation in terms of processing. Use of computers, laptops for the routine tasks [29]In healthcare 4.0, the patient’s information are saved in electronic health record (EHR) repository which is located both at a centralized or allotted areas. It can help the health professionals easily gain access to the patient’s data from anywhere and at any time to guide and counsel the patient. Since internet is the prime channel, security and privacy are main concerns while having access to it from any location. Her in the paper, a biometric-based authentication scheme is discussed by ensuring the threats, challenges first. [30].

Identified Gaps in the Literature Review:

After conducting the literature review it was found that mapping the concept of industry 4.0 to health 4.0 is a rational step. The processes in healthcare are vast and not standardized. The automation of the processes, depends on the hospital type , the management of the hospital and many more factors. The EHR(electronic health records) is mainly the automated part in most hospitals. Again this is not standardized in its form and structure.


The Industry 4.0 revolution is redefining how companiescan manufacture “things” today. It sets out the concepts for how companies can achieve faster innovation and increase efficiencies across the value chain. In the healthcare domain the major process are still paper-based and have heavy regulatory compliance. The healthcare 4.0needs a proper framework. The domain definitely would have a positive impact, even if the implementation is in bits and pieces.


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